Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and its Association with Risk Factors in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem with high mortality and morbidity rates. CKD is found associated with a number of life threatening diseases such as diabetes, anemia, liver and cardiovascular diseases. CKD is highly prevalent in India but its etiology varies in different part of the country.

Methods: Here, we analyzed the prevalence of CKD ( ~ 4%) among population (n=1808) living at eastern part of Uttar Pradesh in India during September 2018 to October 2019 based on GFR and urine albumin levels, and tried to explore the risk factors associated with this disease.

Results: CKD with stage 3 and 4 was comparatively found more prevalent among patients with significantly higher levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid than normal patients. Anemia was diagnosed in 86% of the CKD patients, out of which 79% were found, affected with normocytic hypochromic anemia. More interestingly, diabetes was also equally prevalent (82%) among CKD patients mostly in stage 4. This study was also aligned with a study reporting an endemicity of fluoride toxicity in drinking water in this region particularly in Dalmau and Amawa blocks. We found that chronic exposure to fluoride (more than 1.5 ppm) in drinking water appeared as a key risk factor for causing diabetic nephropathy leading to CKD in affected individuals.

Conclusion: Fluoride appeared as a major environmental factor that contributed in prevalence of CKD in eastern Uttar Pradesh particularly in Raebareli district.


Ankit Gupta, Bijendra Kumar, Pramod Kumar and Rasna Gupta

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