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The Impact of Diabetes on Acute Post-Infectious Glomerulonephritis in Rats: An Experimental Study with Literature Review

Background: The concurrence of diabetes and nephritogenic infections may have a tremendous impact on the kidney. The approach to the two concurrent diseases is based on histological, immunofluorescence findings and most importantly on ultrastructural features. In this experiment our aim was to compare the pattern of injury seen in the kidney in animals with induced post-infectious glomerulonephritis with and without associated diabetes.

Methods: We divided 48 Wistar species rats into four groups comprising twelve rats each. Group I is the normal control, group II includes the rats with induced diabetes, group III are the rats with acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis (APIG), while group IV includes the rats with induced diabetes and APIG. Streptozocin was used to induce diabetes in groups II and IV while neutral phosphatase toxin (NPTase) of Staphylococcus strain was used in groups III and IV. Groups III and IV were sacrificed three and ten days after infection. Routine, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural stains and studies were performed on the kidneys of all rats. Serum urea and creatinine and urinary protein were estimated in all groups.

Results: Out of the forty-eight rats initially included in the study, only twenty-four survived the experiment: three in Group I, five in Group II, five in Group III and eleven in Group IV. The most relevant and distinguishing findings in cases of APIG with associated diabetes are the earlier and more prominent infiltration by polymorphonuclear cells, the stronger positivity for IgG and the earlier and more extensive presence of dense deposits which were confirmed by the electron microscopy study.

Conclusions: This experiment ascertains the adverse effects of diabetes in cases of acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis, in terms of onset and severity of the disease. The necessity of a better control of the glucose level may not only decrease the incidence of acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis but may also contribute to the development of a milder form of the disease.

Author(s): Hala Kfoury, Abdulkareem Alsuwaida, Mohammed Alghonaim, Sufia Husain, Tariq Aljuhani, Hanan H Hagar, Safia Moussa and Ibrahim Ginawi

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