Pneumonia is a common and serious infectious disease. Patients treated with dialysis have higher pulmonary infectious mortality rates than the general population. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is the most frequent cause of community-acquired pneumonia in adults, and more than half of the cases of pathogen-causing pneumonia among dialysis patients are reported to be due to S. pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae also causes invasive infections such as meningitis, bacteremia, or bacteremic pneumonia and is therefore considered a serious threat to public health. For these reasons, pneumococcal vaccines have been developed since the 1970s, and two types of pneumococcal vaccines are currently available for clinical use: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).