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Clinical Effects of Personalized Dialysate Sodium in Conventional, Quotidian, and Nocturnal Home Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Crossover Trial

Background: In thrice weekly conventional haemodialysis patients, higher dialysate sodium concentrations may associate with adverse clinical outcomes. Whether increased frequency and duration of haemodialysis in quotidian and nocturnal patients alters these clinical outcomes is unknown.

Methods: A randomized crossover study was performed in conventional, quotidian and nocturnal haemodialysis patients. Dialysate sodium (Dial-Na+) was personalized 3 mmol/L above (DIALHighSOD) or below (DIALLowSOD) the pre-dialysis plasma sodium set point (SP), with 100 days for each crossover study period.

Results: Interdialytic weight gain (IDWG)(2.15 vs. 1.90 L, p=0.002), IDWG as % of target weight (IDWG%)(2.78 vs. 2.39%, p=0.002), pre-dialysis systolic (143.3 vs. 138.3 mm Hg, p=0.001), diastolic (78.6 vs. 75.6 mm Hg, p=0.008) and mean arterial pressure (100.2 vs. 96.5 mm Hg, p=0.003), post-dialysis systolic (135.4 vs. 130.0 mm Hg, p=0.04), diastolic (75.8 vs. 72.4 mm Hg, p=0.006) and mean arterial pressure (95.7 vs. 91.6 mm Hg, p=0.009) were higher in DIALHighSOD than DIALLowSOD. Haemodialysis frequency was associated with decreased (R=-0.295, slope=-0.002, p=0.034) IDWG%, while the opposite was seen with haemodialysis duration (R=0.507, slope=0.002, p<0.001). Haemodialysis duration increased intradialytic change in diastolic blood pressure (R=0.280, slope=1.127, p=0.044), while haemodialysis frequency increased post-dialysis diastolic blood pressure (R=0.366, slope=3.464, p=0.008).

Conclusions: These results confirm that dialysate sodium concentration alters clinical outcomes in quotidian and nocturnal haemodialysis patients, and that dialysis frequency and duration correlate in opposing fashions in IDWG. Further studies are required to determine the effect of dialysate sodium on cardiovascular outcomes. This trial is registered at UMIN000026102.


Benjamin KA Thomson, Lihua Li and Robert M Lindsay

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